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Church Development Digging Deeper into the Word

Digging Deeper: The Character of Barnabas

Author: Mithun Borde & Andrew Sargent, PhD, Contributing Authors for Foundations by ICM

 

Question: How do you think the newly formed church thrived in the face of persecution and prospered spiritually in spite of the martyrdom of Stephen and James?

First Answer: The Twelve Apostles were leading the church through the power of the Holy Spirit as an effective witness to the Jewish community concerning Jesus Christ.

Second Answer: God used this persecution to forcibly expand their efforts beyond Jerusalem to include even the gentiles themselves. Just as the power of the Spirit led on Pentecost, He continued to empower a new crop of leaders for this global expansion… men like Barnabas, who plays a special role in the gentile church and in the lives of men like Paul and John Mark.

We first meet Barnabas in Acts 4:36 when a supernatural manifestation of love moves some in the new community of faith to sell land to provide the material sustenance for needy believers.  Joseph, whom the Apostles have nicked-named “Barnabas.” (Which Acts 4:36 interprets as “Son of Encouragement) is one of them. Being from Cyprus, many have suggested that this signals a severing of ties with his old life there, and his full commitment to the new community of Faith in Jerusalem.

We learn several things about Barnabas in Scripture. It is interesting to note that his revealed character sets Barnabas out as the exact opposite of the description of the sinners condemned in Revelation 21:8. For fun, we’d like to present those characteristics using the man’s English name as an acrostic.

  • B – Bold, not coward
  • A – Authentic, not unbelieving
  • R – Righteous, not immoral
  • N – Noble, not an idolater
  • A – Admirable, not abominable/detestable
  • B – Believable, not a liar
  • A – Appreciative of the things of the Spirit resisting sorcerers
  • S – Sufferer, not a murderer

B – Bold, not coward

Barnabas was not just bold to speak the word of God but was also brave to give Saul, the Christian killer, a chance when others fled him. In Acts 9:19-25, Saul proves a powerful advocate for Christ in Damascus, winning disciples. In Jerusalem, however, he is shunned until Barnabas risks his very life to embrace him.

A – Authentic, not unbelieving

Barnabas is a faithful man, full of the Holy Spirit. When he witnesses God’s grace in gentile Antioch, he rejoices & encourages them to remain true to Jesus. Seeking their betterment rather than his own glory, Barnabas brings Saul to them. The ministry prospers greatly. (Acts 11:25–26). It is the authentic minister of Christ who lives out John 3:30, “He must increase, I must decrease.”

R – Righteous, not immoral

The Greek word translated as immoral in Revelation 21:8 is derived from a base word that means to sell one’s self… prostitution. It speaks of the unwillingness of most for sexual restraint. Barnabas, however, is a prophet and teacher, a trustworthy man granted authority to collect and deliver large sums of money to sustain the believers in Jerusalem. (Acts 11:29-30). He is trusted as a righteous man who will not succumb to his passions and misappropriate their charitable gifts.

N – Noble, not an idolater

Barnabas has a noble character. He works to support himself in the ministry, just as Paul does, rather than bring the gospel into disrepute among those who are suspicious of their motives. Barnabas’ generosity in giving the proceeds from his land sale also heralds noble character. He strikes a contrasting figure with Ananias & Sapphira, whose greed leaves them unable to part with all the money from their own sale, after boasting that they had. (Acts 5:1-11). Greed is one form of idolatry, and Barnabas resists the common temptation to make a god out of money.

A – Admirable, not abominable/detestable

Barnabas is admirable. He is admired by the Apostles who call him Barnabas and by the Holy Spirit who choses him for missionary service along with Saul, also called Paul. (Acts 13:1-7). Although this mission is labeled Paul’s first missionary journey, Barnabas plays a leading role. When the time comes, Paul moves to the front without a fight for control by Barnabas. He recognizes Paul’s gifts and is happy to see them well-employed for the benefit of believers everywhere.

Here he stands in stark contrast to the detestable leaders of so many Synagogues whose greed (Luke 16:14-15) and jealousy (Acts 5:17 & 13:45) render them abominations before the Lord.

B – Believable, not a liar

The church at Jerusalem entrusts Barnabas’ witness concerning the grace of God in Antioch (Acts 11:22-23; 15:12). When the crowds at Lystra call Barnabas, Zeus (Jupiter—the supreme god), & Paul, Hermes (Mercury—the messenger of the gods & spokesman of Zeus), they restrain them from offering sacrifice to them. Barnabas doesn’t exploit this lie, even when the Jews from Antioch & Iconium coax these very crowds into stoning Paul. (Acts 14:8-20).

A – Appreciative of the things of the Spirit resisting sorcerers

Barnabas is full of the Holy Spirit and manifests the right kind of respect and humility in appreciation of the grace shown to the gifted. It is all about Christ, not himself. (Acts 11:23-24).

Thus, when arriving in his home region, Cyprus (Acts 13), Barnabas stands with Paul against the Jewish sorcerer and false prophet Bar-Jesus, just as Peter stood against the selfish wiles of Simon the Samaritan sorcerer in Acts 8.

When Barnabas witnesses the anointing of the Holy Spirit upon Paul, he appreciates that gifting and allows Paul to assume leadership in their work. (Acts 13:1-13). Acts 13 shows a swift transition of responsibility changing up the phrase Barnabas and Saul (v. 2,7) to Paul and his companions (v.13) to Paul and Barnabas (v.42,50).

S – Sufferer, not a murderer

Both John and Jesus saw the heart of murder in the violent self-interest of those who give way to hate for others. (Matthew 5:22; 1 John 3:15) Barnabas, however, shows again and again that he is an encourager of others, rather than a self-interested brawler. He lives to see others promoted, even if, by the gracious gifts of God, they are promoted ahead of himself. He sees the good in others and stands for them even when it costs him personally… like the time he stood against Paul himself on behalf of John Mark when that young man fails in ministry.

Barnabas influences both Paul and John Mark at crucial points in their spiritual lives, and thus, though superseded by both, has a share in their inspired writings. That which makes men murderers has no foothold in Barnabas’ soul.

Conclusion

We need leaders like Barnabas in our churches. We need leaders who are selfless and act honestly without any ulterior motives. We need leaders who are faithful, staying true to who they are in Christ, and focused primarily on keeping others close to Christ, rather than seeking to become the object of hero worship. Behind every Paul, there is a Barnabas, and we need a Barnabas in every local church. Those whose aim is not competition for prominence but only a deep desire to hear the Lord say to them, “Well done.”

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All Church Development Digging Deeper into the Word

Digging Deeper: The First Church in Acts 2

Author: Andrew Sargent Ph.D., Contributing Author for Foundations by ICM

 

I love discovering deeper layers of meaning in books and movies than stand out on the surface. I get excited when, having read or watched something on one level, I discover upon further personal meditation or discussion with others the true profundity of the work. Of the many things I love about Scripture, one is its ability to prove deeper in intention than my ever-expanding mind and heart can fathom.

In this vein, let me say that Acts 2 is a wonder of Old Testament quotation and allusion. Its subtlety in drawing in the full theological weight of Israel’s sacred writings and weaving the Pentecost event into Israel’s sacred history is, to wildly understate it, masterful. Though a thousand pages could scarce unpack the whole, here, I’d like to provide just a nibble on the role given to the hopes of Isaiah 59 in the Pentecost narrative.

From Corrupt Society to Spirit-Filled Community

Isaiah 59 begins with a diatribe of the general corruption of human society and man’s ability to escape his own depravity enough to create a thriving world. This plagues both Israelites and Gentiles and plays a role in Paul’s own summary of world corruption in Romans 3. In verse 16, Yahweh determines to bring both justice and salvation. He promises to come to man Himself and plant a redeemed, Spirit-transformed community in the world. His coming is described in verse 19 as a fear-inducing, glorious, “rushing stream” driven on by the Spirit of Yahweh. This Spirit is both upon them and in them overflowing in prophetic speech as spirit-filled families and communities continue expanding in the world.

In Acts 2, the story does not begin with neutrality, but with darkness, with a murdered messiah. The people and religious leaders and Gentiles preyed on Him for His righteousness and continue to reject Him through His followers. Into this comes the Spirit of God, sounding like a mighty rushing wind, with holy fire upon them and divine speech flowing from them. They rush into the streets where those hearing the sound witness the wonder of their emergence from the upper room.

Pentecost

On this day of Pentecost—the historic celebration of the coming of Torah, the creation of Israel, the mighty works of God, and the sending of David—the witnesses hear the disciples of Jesus declaring the mighty works of God to the gathered Jewish representatives of the nations. Peter stands up and delivers a Spirit-inspired message about the resurrection of the rejected son of David and calls upon those under the Spirit’s conviction to repent and cry out to God. In addition to several other allusions to Isaiah 59 already noted, Peter follows his call for repentance with a composite of Isaiah 59:21, Isaiah 57:19,  and Joel 2:38 in Acts 2:39.

He says,  “For the promise is for you and for your children and for all who are far off, everyone whom the Lord our God calls to himself.” Thousands respond and join these believers in the creation of the Church of Jesus, who is the Christ.

This is not the end, however. The crescendo of Acts 2 is not with coming power or prophetic speech. It is not with inspired preaching, apologetics, or evangelism. It is not with a massive altar call or swelling church numbers. The crescendo of Acts 2 is found in Acts 2:41-47 in the establishment of a community of love and devotion that stands out as a miraculous light in the great human darkness around it.

Community summaries like the one in Acts 2 play an important role in the unfolding of Acts.

The First Church

We have an early depiction of the 11 with their followers—in one accord, devoted to prayer… both men and women, Jesus’ family— in Acts 1:14. We see the filling up of the Apostle’s ranks in 1:15-26, a typological restoration of Israel.

3000 are added at Pentecost (2:41), who are devoted to the Apostle’s teaching, fellowship, eating together and prayer, experiencing signs and wonders with divine fear, sharing with each other freely, worshiping in the temple, well received by the community and growing daily in number (2:42-47).

At the end of 4:4, another 5000 are added over the incident with the lame man. We hear of the oneness of the community in sharing all things (while defending property rights which are an important social foundation throughout Scripture). We hear of the power at work among them as they preached in 4:32-37.

Ananias and Sapphira are struck dead by God causing great fear in the community as signs and wonders continue. They continue as one. Many men and women are added, but others, while admiring keep their distance. (5:11-14) In 5:42, they meet daily in the temple and from house to house.

Growth of the Spirit-Led Community

With Paul’s conversion, the church enters a period of Peace throughout Judea and Galilee, and Samaria, being built up, fearing God and finding comfort in the Holy Spirit. They multiplied. (9:31) After Peter speaks to Gentiles who come to faith, some of those scattered begin to speak to Gentiles as well, and a great number turn to the Lord. (11:21) In 11:24, “a great many are added.” In 12:24, “the word of God increased and multiplied.

Paul and Barnabas have Isaiah’s Servant mission proclaimed over them in 13:43-49 as they turn away from the Synagogue in Perga to the Gentiles there saying, “as many as were appointed to eternal life believed,” (13:48) and  “the word of the Lord was spreading throughout the whole region.” (13:49)  In 16:5, “they increased in number greatly.” In 19:20, the word prevails and increases greatly. Throughout, we find prayer 21x, worship 7x, fellowship, and breaking bread 5x.

This depiction stands in constant contrast with the darkness around them. Isaiah 42 is quoted over Paul and Barnabas in 13:47. Thus, the context of the church’s light is the darkness of the Jews & Gentiles, lowly & Great.

The Beauty of the Mundane

What does all this mean to us?

While anecdotal, my experience in schools and churches has convinced me that, like the Corinthian community, many have a tendency to measure spirituality by “spiritual” looking manifestations (the weirder the better) and to ignore the more meaningful measure of the fruit of the Spirit in community.

The idea that the coming of the Spirit in Acts 2 climaxes in the uncommon “mundane” should be a check for us. Heavenly signs, fire, tongues, exuberance, bold proclamation, miracles, and massive “altar-calls,” find their intentional end in a community of devotion to God and to each other. We are excited by and eagerly seek Acts 2:2-41, but pause little over our failure to produce Acts 2:42-47.

Many others have given up the whole paradigm, contenting themselves with little more than a doctrinal reflection on the transforming power of the Spirit in life and community. Don’t be one of them. Cry out to God for His transforming power in your life and the social and societal fruit that it should bring.